(1) Under the great attention and correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the state has established and improved the financial aid policy system for students from families with financial difficulties in colleges and universities
The Party Central Committee and the State Council have always placed priority on the development of education and the promotion of educational fairness. Over the past 30 years of reform and opening up, under the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, and through the joint efforts of local people’s governments, relevant departments and colleges and universities, the construction of the financial aid system for students from financially disadvantaged families in colleges and universities in my country has generally gone through the gradual establishment, exploration, reform, and improvement of the system. several important historical development stages. In May 2007, the State Council issued the “Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Policy System for Students with Financial Difficulties in Ordinary Undergraduate Universities, Higher Vocational Schools and Secondary Vocational Schools”, and decided to establish and improve the financial difficulties of families in colleges and universities in my country starting from the fall semester of 2007. Student Financial Aid Policy System. After the establishment of the new subsidy policy system, the state has established national grants, national inspirational scholarships, national scholarships, national student loans, free education for normal students, work-study assistance, special difficulties subsidies, tuition reductions, and “green channels” ” in the higher education stage. ” and other forms of organic combination of financial aid policy system for students from families with financial difficulties.
1. “Green Channel.”
That is to say, for the freshmen who are admitted and have financial difficulties from their families, the colleges and universities must first go through the admission procedures for them, and then take corresponding measures to support them according to the verified family economic situation. This policy has been implemented for nearly 10 years. It was first implemented in public full-time ordinary colleges and universities and expanded to all full-time ordinary colleges and universities in 2008. The practice has proved that the “green channel” is the most effective measure to ensure the smooth enrollment of freshmen from families with financial difficulties.
2. National bursary.
It is used to subsidize full-time general undergraduate and junior college (including higher vocational and second bachelor’s degree) students from families with financial difficulties. Each year, more than 3.4 million people are funded, accounting for about 20% of the total number of students in colleges and universities nationwide. The average subsidy is 2,000 yuan per person per year. The specific standard is determined by each region and each university within the range of 1,000-3,000 yuan per person per year, which can be divided into 2-3 grades.
3. National Inspirational Scholarship.
It is used to reward and subsidize full-time general undergraduate and junior college (including higher vocational and second bachelor’s degree) students with financial difficulties and excellent academic performance. Each year, about 520,000 people are awarded and subsidized, accounting for about 3% of the total number of students in colleges and universities nationwide. The subsidy standard is 5,000 yuan per person per year. Students in the second grade or above (including the second grade) who meet the prescribed conditions can apply.
4. National Scholarship. It is used to reward particularly outstanding full-time undergraduate and junior college (including higher vocational and second bachelor’s degree) students. Regardless of whether the family is financially difficult or not, as long as they are students in the second grade or above (including the second grade) who are particularly excellent in academic performance, social practice, comprehensive quality, etc., they can obtain national scholarships after reviewing the prescribed procedures. Each year, 50,000 people will be rewarded with 8,000 yuan per person per year.
5. National Student Loans.
National student loans are led by the government, with financial discounts, and financial institutions and universities jointly give banks a certain amount of risk compensation. A bank loan for accommodation expenses. National student loans are credit loans. Students do not need to apply for loan guarantees or mortgages, but they need to promise to repay on schedule and bear relevant legal responsibilities. Full-time undergraduate (including higher vocational) students, second bachelor’s degree students, and postgraduate students from families with financial difficulties who meet the prescribed conditions can be applied. In principle, the maximum loan limit per student per year does not exceed 6,000 yuan. Students choose to start repaying the principal within 1-2 years after graduation and repay the loan principal and interest within 6 years. The loan interest shall be implemented by the statutory loan interest rate announced by the People’s Bank of China and relevant national interest rate policies. The interest of the students during the school period is subsidized by the finance, and the interest after graduation is all paid by the students themselves.
While promoting the national student loan work in colleges and universities, in 2007, the state launched a pilot credit student loan business in Jiangsu, Hubei, Chongqing, Shaanxi, and Gansu. This year, the coverage of provinces will be further expanded. Students or their legal guardians should apply to the financial institution where their families are located for credit-based student loans. The maximum loan limit per student and the policy of discount interest for the credit student loan in the origin of the student are the same as those of the national student loan in colleges and universities. In principle, the loan term is determined by the full-time undergraduate and junior college system plus 10 years, with a maximum of 14 years.
To guide and encourage graduates from colleges and universities with loans from central departments to seek employment in grassroots units in the western regions and remote and difficult areas, in September 2006, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education jointly formulated the Interim Measures for National Student Loan Compensation Funding for Graduates of Colleges and Universities. From that year onwards, for graduates from colleges and universities affiliated to central departments who meet the prescribed conditions, the principal of the state-sponsored student loan and the interest incurred before all repayments during their studies at the school shall be repaid by the central finance on their behalf.
6. Free education for normal students.
Starting from the fall of 2007, the state has implemented free education for normal students in six normal universities affiliated to the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, East China Normal University, Northeast Normal University, Central China Normal University, Shaanxi Normal University, and Southwest University. Students admitted as free normal students should sign an agreement with the school and the provincial education administrative department where the students are located before enrolling and promise to engage in primary and secondary education for more than ten years after graduation. Free education normal students are exempted from tuition fees, accommodation fees, and subsidized living expenses during their studies at the school.
Part-time work-study refers to the social practice activities in which students use their spare time to obtain legal remuneration through their labor under the organization of the school and use it to subsidize their study and living expenses. Work-study is an important part of the school’s financial aid work, and it is an effective way to improve the comprehensive quality of students and support students from financially disadvantaged families. The minimum wage for each student undertaking work-study is 8 yuan per hour.
8. Special hardship allowance.
It is a temporary, one-time free subsidy given by governments at all levels and universities to students from families with financial difficulties when they encounter some special and sudden difficulties.
9. Tuition waiver.
The state implements a tuition fee reduction policy for students in public full-time colleges and universities whose families are particularly financially difficult and unable to pay tuition fees, especially orphans and disabled students, minority students, children of martyrs, and children from families with special care. The specific reduction or exemption method is formulated by the school.
In addition, the new funding policy requires that colleges and universities must withdraw 4-6% of their career income for the expenditure of various funding measures within the school; further implement and improve the relevant preferential policies and measures to encourage donations to support education.
(2) Establishing and improving the new funding policy system for colleges and universities is a major institutional guarantee to ensure that Chinese citizens fully enjoy the fairness of higher education
The new financial aid policy system of colleges and universities starts from improving the system and innovating the mechanism. By increasing financial investment, implementing various student aid policies, expanding the proportion of students receiving aid, and improving the level of financial aid, the problem of schooling for students from families with financial difficulties is solved from the system. This marks that the construction of the financial aid system for students from financially disadvantaged families in colleges and universities has entered a new historical development stage.
Establishing and improving the new funding policy system for colleges and universities is a major decision made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council to take the overall situation, foresight, and review the situation. To lead and promote education fairness, it is the basic requirement of building a harmonious socialist society, an important measure to ensure the sustainable, coordinated, and healthy development of education, and the implementation of the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, and providing talent support for building an innovative country. Objective requirements are an important measure to fulfill the government’s public financial functions. It fully embodies the important principle that development is for the people, development depends on the people, and the fruits of development are shared by the people, fully embodies the concern of the Party and the government for the people in need, and fully embodies the superiority of the socialist system. It has great practical significance and a far-reaching social impact.
The new funding policy system for colleges and universities has the following characteristics:
1. System design is perfect.
The new funding policy system takes national scholarships, national inspirational scholarships, national grants, and national student loans as the main funding measures, with work-study, special difficulties subsidies, tuition reduction, and other auxiliary funding measures, and government and school input as funding The guarantee is organized by the student financial aid management agencies at all levels, and the system design fully reflects the systematic and scientific rationality.
2. Functional positioning is clear.
The National Scholarship rewards exceptionally outstanding students; the National Inspirational Scholarship rewards students from financially disadvantaged families who are excellent in both academic performance and academic performance; National Grants solve the living expenses of students from financially disadvantaged families; National Student Loans solve the tuition fees and accommodation of students from financially disadvantaged families in colleges and universities fee issue. Different funding measures have clear functional orientations.
3. The guiding effect is significant.
The new funding system takes into account the characteristics of different types of schools and different majors and sets up different ratios of national scholarships and bursaries to guide students to apply for the majors and institutions most needed for national construction. Through the implementation of the national student loan compensation policy, college graduates will be guided to find employment in grassroots units in difficult areas, and the rational distribution of human resources will be promoted. In the sharing of funding funds, the central and local financial sharing ratios should be leveraged to encourage colleges and universities to expand the scale of enrollment in economically underdeveloped areas, and promote the coordinated development of regional education.
4. Strengthen the leading role of government funding.
The new subsidy policy system has greatly increased the financial input of the central and local governments, reflecting the government’s fulfillment of the functions of public finance, highlighting the main role of the government in the new subsidy policy system, and fundamentally changing the previous subsidy for students from financially disadvantaged families who mainly relied on colleges and universities. situation. After the implementation of the new funding policy, the funding funds invested by the central and local governments have reached tens of billions of yuan each year, which is unprecedented in the history of college student funding in my country. The broad masses of the people have highly praised it, and the state has worked hard to provide education that the people are satisfied with, and today’s education has indeed satisfied the people.
5. From the system, basically solves the problem of schooling for students from financially disadvantaged families in colleges and universities.
At present, since the establishment of the socialist market economy system with Chinese characteristics, the state has the most complete financial aid policy system for students from financially disadvantaged families in colleges and universities, with the largest funding intensity, the largest financial investment, the majority of students from financially disadvantaged families receiving the most benefits, and the best response from the general public. Education equity, the country’s basic education policy, is the best time to implement it. The new funding policy system ensures that every student who is admitted to a full-time public college can be successfully enrolled; it ensures that every student studying in a full-time public college does not drop out of school due to family financial difficulties; of full-time public colleges and universities will not reject newly admitted students from financially disadvantaged families from the university entrance. The people praised: the state’s funding policy is like a warm spring breeze, blowing into the hearts of the students, giving them hope of getting rid of poverty and helping them realize their university dreams.
(3) Introduction to typical experience
1. National scholarships and grants: The governments of Shanghai and Tianjin have arranged funds, expanded the scope of awards and grants, and played an exemplary role in the country. Lanzhou University, Northeast Normal University, Beijing Jiaotong University, and other colleges and universities have explored a set of effective methods in the identification of students with financial difficulties and the evaluation and issuance of national scholarships, which are generally welcomed by students with financial difficulties.
2. National student loans for colleges and universities: Henan Province has explored the “Henan Model”, which has been affirmed by Premier Wen Jiabao and other leaders of the State Council; Hubei, Jiangsu, Guizhou, and other provinces account for the highest proportion of students with loans in the country; Southwest Transportation The university’s experience in strengthening post-loan management and controlling loan default risk is worthy of learning from other universities.
3. Credit student loans in the source of students: Active pilot projects have been carried out in Chongqing and Hubei, with remarkable results, and local students in difficulty, parents, and the general public have given high praise.
4. Promote all-around development of students through funding work: Peking University has formulated a “green growth plan” according to the actual situation of different students, which has effectively promoted the cultivation of high-level creative talents; Hubei Vocational and Technical College takes the lead in funding and educating people. Combined organically, a group of high-skilled and creative talents in line with the development direction of higher vocational education has been cultivated, and outstanding contemporary college students represented by Tan Zhiping have emerged.